William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, Forgotten Dead: Mob Violence against Mexicans, 1848–1928 (New York, 2013)
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William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond grayscale: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender when you look at the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For the Texas research study, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first several years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal regarding the West, 49 (wintertime 2010), 41–48. The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871 (New York, 2012) on mob violence against “racial others” in the West, see, for example, Pfeifer, Rough Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of Rough Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch. Regarding the lynching of 29 Sicilians, another cultural team regarded as racially various into the postbellum Southern, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants within the United states South, 1886–1910, ” United states Nineteenth Century History, 3 (springtime 2002), 45–76. From the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the countless Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (nyc, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the usa: a past history in papers (ny, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African Us americans Confront Lynching: methods of Resistance through the Civil War to your Civil Rights period (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in soulcams review Global Historical Perspective (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching within the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The society of Segregation within the Southern, 1890–1940 (ny, 1998), 199–238. The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012) for analyses of literary and visual representations of lynching from the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries, see Jacqueline Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre. For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context of this Protestant tradition regarding the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching within the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching within the people tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century black colored movie theater, see Koritha Mitchell, managing Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, in the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching when you look at the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential area research that explored the long legacy of racially inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching within the Heartland: Race and Memory in the us (ny, 2001). For a summary of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( New Haven, 2012). The end of American Lynching (New Brunswick, 2012) for the argument that an end-of-lynching discourse continues to shape and distort discussion of American mob violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy.
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: ladies as well as the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (nyc, 2011). The cases of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006) for case studies of lynchings of African American women in Georgia, Oklahoma, and South Carolina, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner and the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Black Women. For a journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the very last Mass Lynching in the usa (ny, 2003). In the lynching of females and kids within the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you imagine Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The US community of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a listing of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the us: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, difficult Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning within the brand brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a past history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). On lynching when you look at the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker, This Mob Will Clearly simply take My Life: Lynching when you look at the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, new york (Jefferson, 2003).
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching within the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Present scholarship, particularly that centered on civil liberties activism, has started to explore African US reactions to racial terror in the regional degree.
On black colored reactions to terror that is racial fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction into the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (ny, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance when you look at the Mississippi Freedom Movement (ny, 2013). Ifill, From The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. For the Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., 13, 2005, p. S6364–88 june. For news protection regarding the U.S. Senate apology see, for instance, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to aid End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 as well as in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization as well as its Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage for the Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. On an attempt by Bryan Stevenson therefore the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching websites all over Southern, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles while the Protests, the Chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to keep in mind Slavery in which it simply happened, ” nyc instances, Dec. 10, 2013, pp. 17–18.